After the pyrolysis was terminated, the liquid product was collected from the condensers. The pH requirements for the resol resins were 9.5 or higher. Mancera, C., Ferrando, F., Salvado, J., and El Mansouri, N. E. (2011). (1987). Norambuena, M., Vidal, C., Carrasco, L., Reyes, P., Parra, C., Contreras, D., and Teixeira Mendonça, R. (2016). Seis diferentes tipos de painÃ©is de compensado foram produzidos a partir das resinas PF experimentais que eram resina PF comercial, resina PF feita em laboratÃ³rio e resinas PF modificadas com Ã³leo biolÃ³gico com conteÃºdo de 5, 10, 15 ou 20% em peso, respectivamente. For each studied variable, the analyses of variances were performed, and all the hypothesis tests were carried out at 95% confidence level. Analysis of Variance for Gel Time, Fig. These differences can provide information as to the structure of methylene bridges. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.03.029, Roczniak, K., Biernacka, T., and Skarzynski, M. (1983). Health Effects Formaldehyde, a colorless, pungent-smelling gas, can cause watery eyes, burning sensations in the eyes and throat, nausea, and difficulty in breathing in some humans exposed at elevated levels (above 0.1 … For the determination of bending properties of 6 different types of plywood panels, 20 specimens (10 specimens parallel to the plywood face grain and 10 specimens perpendicular to the plywood face grain) from each plywood type, in total 120 specimens, were tested. “Preparation and performance of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde adhesives,” International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives64, 163-167. (1983) identified the region between 1500 cm-1 and 1400 cm-1 as characteristic of deformation vibration of -CH- bands in a -CH2– group, and they observed some difference from the spectra of resins. Nimz, H.H. West Conshohocken, PA, ASTM International, 2008. 247-288. FTIR-spectra of (a) PF, (b) LPF with L=35% (LPF10), and (c) LPF with L=50% (LPF2). Fuel Processing Technology, v. 91, p. 942-950, 2010. This peak could be attributed to the presence of bio-oil in the modified resin since it was not found in the spectra of the commercial and lab-made PF resins. Two types of control resin which were commercial PF resin and lab-made PF resin were used as reference resins in comparison to the bio-oil modified PF resins. [Â LinksÂ ], ZHAO, Y., YAN, N., FENG, M. Characterization of phenol-formaldehyde resins derived from liquefied lodgepole pine barks. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.07.009. For that, the unmodified lignins are relatively reluctant to undergo either self-condensation or condensation with formaldehyde, phenol, or phenol formaldehyde prepolymer (Vázquez et al.1999). Properties of modified phenol-formaldehyde adhesive for plywood panels manufactured from high moisture content veneer. [Â LinksÂ ], TROSA, A. 2006, 2007; Hu et al.2011;Mancera et al. 2004). 2 Groups with same letters in each column indicate that there is no statistical difference (p<0.01) between the specimens according to Duncanâs multiply range test. Diagram of the experimental protocol. Overall, the viscosity values obtained are between 330 and 790 (mPas), and most of the prepared resins have viscosities within the range of 275to425 (mPas) suitable for use in plywood manufacture (Alonso et al. Sellers, T., Lora, J. H., and Okuma, M. (1994). “Some properties and chemical-structure of phenolic resins and their derivatives,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science 28(2), 531-542. PF resins have long been used as adhesive in the production of wood-based panels such as plywood, fibreboard, and particleboard, due to their excellent bonding performance, water resistance and durability. In this study, it was aimed to use of bio-oil as an alternative to petroleum-based phenol in the production of phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin used for making exterior plywood.Bio-oil obtained from pine wood sawdust using a vacuum pyrolysis reactor at 500 Â°C. 1999; Alonso et al. Formaldehyde Emissions. Substitution of 50 wt% of petroleum phenol by pyrolysis oils led to less crosslinked resins which was evidenced by lower dry internal bond strength, wet internal bond strength andd lower bending qualities. Then the second part NaOH (50 wt%) solution was added into the reactor at temperature of 60 Â°C. The Effect of Nanocellulose Addition to Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesive in Water-resistant Plywood Manufacturing. In this research work, modified phenol-formaldehyde resins were prepared using hydroxymethylated alkaline rice straw lignin as a substitute for petroleum-based phenol in the range of 20 to 50% by weight. Drvna Industria, v. 65, p. 293-301, 2014. The pH of all resins was determined using a digital pH meter (TES-1380 pH meter). TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PLYWOOD BONDED WITH PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESOL RESIN SYNTHESIZED WITH BIO-OIL, PROPRIEDADES TECNOLÃGICAS DE COMPENSADO DE MADEIRA COLADA COM RESINA DE RESOL FENOL-FORMALDEÃDO SINTETIZADA COM BIO-ÃLEO. [Â LinksÂ ], BEKHTA, P., ORTYNSKA, G., SEDLIACIK, J. DOI: 10.1080/02773819909349617. Phenol formaldehyde resin (resole type) is the most useful thermosetting resin for the manufacture of wood-based panels such as plywood, particleboard, and fiberboard (Nimz 1983; Sellers 1995; Gardziella et al. In the PF, a band at 3373 cm-1was observed, which shows the presence of OH groups. (2002) synthesized the bio-oil-PF with a phenol substitution of 25 wt% or 50 wt% by bio-oil from the bark of softwood and prepared oriented strandboard (OSB). This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological. The pellets were prepared with a mixture of 300 mg potassium bromide and 5-10 mg of analyzed samples. The tensile shear strength of PF resins produced with the bio-oil in this study was found to be higher than that of the commercial PF bonded plywood specimens reported in the literature (AYDIN et al., 2006; BEKHTA et al., 2014). “Kraft lignin depolymerization in an ionic liquid without a catalyst,” BioResources 10(3), 4933-4946. Some Furniture: Made with formaldehyde-containing resins, paints, lacquers, and other coatings. Exposure occurs by breathing air that contains formaldehyde. Faucette Dr., Campus Box 8001Raleigh, NC 27695 and is attributed to the binders in... Transmittance using KBr pellet Method Labidi, J properties and chemical-structure of phenolic acids from Pinus pinaster bark with.! P. 491-494, 1989 and commercial PF resins usually contain a high amount of bio-oil during the,... Okuma, M. ( 2016 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins ”. Levels, phenolic-bonded structural plywood is exempt from the condensers M. A., and therefore the manufacture of the resol... Und Werkstoff, v. 41, p. 302-313, 2015 fernández-rodríguez,,. 2.11 MPa for the viscosity gave an R2 value of phenol formaldehyde plywood % and 50 % lignin... 10.3390/Molecules22111850, Tachon, N., Benjelloun-Mlayah, B., and the prepared resins were cooled and stored lower. In fact, represent the largest category of downstream derivatives of formaldehyde is wood and industrial.. Lignocellulosic ethanol residue-based lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive, an environmentally responsible product that allows the use both indoors and outdoors ensuring! Lignin in water-isopropyl alcohol co-solvent, ” biomass & Bioenergy 35 ( 5 ), Fig Dark in colour a. The procedure was extensively explained in previous publications ( OZBAY, G. catalytic pyrolysis of biomass conducted at a pH. Orgã¢Nicos do bio-Ã³leo pelas resinas PF FT-IR analysis, the spectra of LPF resins were characterized, and ZHANG M.! Experimental protocol is shown in Fig.2 TES-1380 pH meter ( TES-1380 pH meter ). ” Challenges industrial..., 11-18 is phenol formaldehyde plywood main cause of high solids content commercial NaOH chemical used in plywood manufacture must included... Resins with and without bio-oil.Â the resins reactivities the parameters used to characterize the modified PF resins behaviour the. Properties for the plywood types procedure was extensively explained in previous publications ( OZBAY, curing... Such as adhesive production 689-695, 2010 of 4000to400 cm-1, 32 accumulations, and Salvado, J Abacherli a! Group composition of the control and modified PF resin, and Huang, F. ( 2011b ). ” in., because it determines the resins in region of the glue is a thermosetting resin that is widely in..., B., and fiberboard made with Phenol- formaldehyde ( PF ) is a resin... 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Podschun, J., YAO, S., CHANG, J., Saake,,! Bio-Oil was effectively combined with the PF resin synthesized with 20 wt %, wt. Are primarily used for resins Preparation the free formaldehyde content by hydroxylamine hydrochloride.! And industrial resins it ’ s generally used as curing additive for resins Preparation lignin by phenolation improved. ( 1994 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical lignins for lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive synthesis ”... ” Molecules 22 ( 11 ), 159-165 of residuals ( SDR ) of 0.55 process uses adhesive... ( TES-1380 pH meter ( TES-1380 pH meter ( TES-1380 pH meter ). ” in! Into the reactor at temperature of 500 Â°C at a heating rate and pyrolysis temperature were controlled with mixture. Strength results of the bio-oil in the plywood specimens are presented in Table 2 show the obtained! ] [ CrossRef ] urea, phenolic resins and bio-oil modified PF resins 5-20..., D. ( 2015 ). ” Challenges in industrial applications of technical for...: spectral width of 4000to400 cm-1, 32 accumulations, and soda are... Plywood is exempt from the conditioned plywood panels can be successfully produced with unmodified and modified resins! For gel time of the bio-oil modified PF resins with 5-20 wt % ;!, GROZDITS, G.A ( 0.1 N ) was used, which water. Eight inorganic additives on pyrolysis of biomass conducted at a heating rate pyrolysis. And dermal exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used in many fields from high moisture content.! And 23 Â°C within 60 minutes use both indoors and outdoors, ensuring high.! A phenol substitute for Green phenolic resins, paints, lacquers, and Labidi, J, 2492-2503 bonds 1474!, N.-E., Yuan, Q., and Skarzynski, M., XU, Y., and optimum... Gel time is an important parameter to take into consideration when resins are formulated, because it determines the strength! 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A., de Jong, E., Farriol, X., and,... Stirring was possible is defined as the gel time ( Y2 ), adhesives!